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Greenhouse effect is widely considered to be an important phenomenon that directly affects the climate of the Earth. It is characterized by an increase of temperature of lower atmospheric layers of the globe in comparison with the temperature of the thermal radiation of the planet, which can be seen from space.

The greenhouse effect and global warming have become major complementary issues of the climate change. The sun heats the upper layer of the atmosphere and one-third of the heat is reflected back into space. The other part of this heat passes through the atmosphere, warming the Earth's surface. Greenhouse gases are present in the atmosphere in small amounts. It is enough to maintain the heat balance of the Earth at a level suitable for life. Greenhouse gases include water vapor, CO2, methane, nitrogen oxides among others, which delay energy reflected by the Earth's surface and reflect it back to Earth. In turn, oceans, covering 71% of the Earth's surface, are the main source of atmospheric water vapor. Oceans can retain heat for a long time and transport it for thousands of kilometers. The air temperature increase could mean an increase in water evaporation and melting of ice on the water and land. Water vapor is the most efficient and effective greenhouse gas. Clouds simultaneously cool, obscuring the surface of the Earth, and heat by delaying heat reflected by the surface.

Causes of the Climate Challenge

The main cause of the climate change is human performance. Earth's population continuously increases the number of non-recyclable by nature substances used. Their number is more than 4000. People develop dangerous technologies, store and transport a lot of chemicals and explosives, which pollutes the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and soil as well as increases energy potential.

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Fuel Combustion is the main reason for the increase of CO2 concentration. Agriculture, industry, and landfills have increased the level of methane in the atmosphere. Aerosols and industrial emissions of sulfates reflect incoming sunlight, forming a mixture of gases. By adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, mankind causes global warming.

What is more, it results in a decrease in the ozone layer and formation of ozone holes. The presence of the ozone hole affects the strength and direction of winds and, as a consequence, distribution of rainfall. Now there are a large number of ozone holes, but the biggest one is the hole over Antarctica. The lack of ozone allows sunlight to warm the troposphere over Antarctica, causing atmospheric cyclones, which shed powerful rains in tropical areas, and traditionally arid subtropical zone is postponing to the south.

Thus, the main manifestations of the climate change are the greenhouse effect and global warming. They arise due to the fact that the Earth absorbs more heat than reflects, but the main cause of the issue is human activity processes, which pollute the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and soil as well as change the ecosystem patterns.


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Results of Climate Challenge

If the tendency of the climate change is constant, it will lead to a change in the weather and increased precipitation, which, in turn, will lead to a rise of the global sea level. A further change of the precipitation level will have a huge impact on agriculture. The biggest change will occur in the polar regions. The sea level will rise as the thickness and area of Arctic sea ice will continue to decline; permafrost will start melting. As a result, irreversible changes in the circulation of water in the oceans and the sea level will occur. By 2050, at least 150-200 million people will be forced to change the place of residence.

Species and ecosystems have already begun to respond to the climate change. Changes were observed in 420 physical processes as well as biological species and populations. For example, migratory birds began to arrive earlier in the spring and fly later during the autumn; the breeding season of many birds and amphibians begin earlier; areas of sensitive to cold insects are shifting to the north. With the further temperature growth, more than 30% of the species will be on the verge of extinction due to the fact that they will not have time to adapt to changing conditions. The warm and humid climate, which will be established on the planet, will cause new epidemics.

Therefore, the global warming and the greenhouse effect are disastrous. The sea level rise will automatically change the land area. Changes in air temperature and precipitation will lead to drought and problems with crops. It will also fatally affect the types of ecosystems.

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The main manifestations of the climate change are the greenhouse effect and global warming. The consequences of these processes are uncontrollable changes in air temperature, global sea level, and the amount of precipitation. This can lead to the relocation and later even extinction of many species, including humans. The cause of these processes is the destruction of the ozone layer and changes in the climate system of the planet. Thus, the greenhouse effect not only shifts a habitual way of life of mankind, it is dangerous to the whole nature.

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