Negotiation Process |

Negotiation is an everyday process which occurs in many places. It is used to make sure that one acquires what he or she wants. Negotiation determines one's success since simple skills of negotiation can help to accumulate great fortunes. People with excellent negotiation skills are known to be the market leaders across the world. Negotiation is not determined by the level of education or the background of a person. It is greatly determined by the experience of a few tricks of a successful negotiation process.

Good negotiation skills ensure that a person gets what other people are offering by just using simple, convincing tactics. As stated above, negotiation is a daily ongoing process which takes place across different levels. It is a common phenomenon in various fields such as production and supply, contraction industry, sales and marketing as well as real estate field. Negotiation skills differentiate the amount of salaries offered to different employees within one organization. They dictate who should be given a discount and who should not. Various companies competing to get a government contract will use all negotiation tactics known to ensure that they get the best. In short, it is vivid that one can get what the other is offering by using simple negotiating skills. One can get the best offer by using the convincing power of superb negotiation skills. Good negotiation skills ensure that a person gets the best deals with very little effort. Therefore, it requires someone to apply excellent negotiation strategies so as to get the upper hand in every contract being negotiated.

Research Strategies to Be Used Prior to Negotiation Process

Before entering into negotiation, it is necessary to have a substantial prior knowledge of the client one is meeting. This prior information is required as it helps one to plan the negotiation process efficiently. Knowledge of the nature of the client prepares one psychologically, and this may enhance negotiating skills. It helps one know what is required of the contract and it is essential to know how the client handled past contracts. With this information, one can know the required offer and the level of adjustments. It also assists in understanding the terms and conditions of the client by considering past contracts. With this information, one is assured of getting the best part of the deal (Nierenberg & Oregon State Bar, 2005). This would be an added advantage over other competitors who would not dedicate some time to research on their clients.

To get diverse information about the government negotiators and the government operation, it would require the negotiation team to undergo a thorough research. This research would help to understand the nature and the characteristics of the state negotiators themselves as well as the state. In this project, different research approaches would be used among which are quantitative research, qualitative research, pragmatic approach, and participatory approach.

Quantitative Approach

This process would be used in order to collect data pertaining to the state and its negotiators and converting it into numbers or a numerical form. Numbers would then help in drawing a definite conclusion. The negotiating team would have one or more hypotheses which are questions that would direct it to the research. These questions would be in the form of predictions about the state and its previous contracts (Nierenberg & Oregon State Bar, 2005). To get the answers, the negotiating team has to conduct various testing to verify the truth. This process would apply different methods of data collection consisting of statistical analysis. These methods would aim at establishing a relationship between several independent variables such as state and total revenue allocated to particular projects. These methods would also look at the population size of the target group and the effects the project would have.

This approach would be guided by objectivity and attitudes, views and perceptions of the negotiators should not affect the results. The interests of the negotiation team should not create any level of impartiality. This process is effective in ensuring that the researchers measure what they are supposed to measure. This process also ensures that all external factors and elements which are likely to affect the results are under control.

Qualitative Approach

This approach is associated with the existing reality of social aspects. This research would be effective in analyzing and understanding the nature of the state's negotiators. This is because it aims at investigating and learning about the deeper meaning of the human behavior. It is effective in analyzing people's feelings, beliefs and experiences. With this understanding, it would be the best method used to understand human behavior.

Understanding of human behavior is one of the vital requirements in a negotiation process. Once you understand the person you are dealing with, it would be easy to plan how to approach him/her. The process is usually inductive since its main purpose is to comprehend the data collected. Contrary to the quantitative approach, this approach tries to move from particular facts to general facts. It focuses on the truth behind the predetermined hypotheses on the human behavior.

Pragmatic Approach

This process does not have a specific design or criteria of data collection. It greatly depends on the situation at hand as it gives a guideline on the process to follow. This would give the negotiators freedom to use any method that would suit the situation. This approach recognizes the weaknesses of various research methods and its main aim is to complement all of them. The best thing regarding this process is the flexibility to use a variety of techniques at the same time.

Competitors and Unique Selling Points

There is no negotiation without potential competitors. In the field of driverless convoys of moving goods and supplies, there are other organizations with such convoys. However, it is always good to research in advance on the nature of the goods and services offered by competitors. In this field, there are three competitors who have been manufacturing driverless convoys. Their convoys are almost similar in nature though they have different sources of energy. In two of the companies, the convoys are petrol driven. This means that there is always an additional petrol cost on top of the initial cost of the convoy. This also implies that these convoys cannot run once there is petrol shortage. These convoys also require frequent maintenance since petrol engines depreciate at a higher rate.

The other one competitor has a convoy that is electrically driven. One point to note is that this convoy does not have the power back up. This indicates that this device cannot run when there is a power blackout. It is also clear that this convoy is only effective in areas that have a reliable supply of electricity. There is also a vital concern of the cost of electric power on top of the initial cost of the convoy.

The selling point of the convoy offered by this specific company is in terms of price, power and pollution. The convoy on offer is cheap when compared with what the competitors are offering. The initial and maintenance cost is fair given that it can use both electricity and solar energy. It also has a steady power backup in case of a power blackout. The backup battery can run up to twelve hours without recharging. The convoy is environmentally friendly as it does not produce smoke. It is also manufactured using readily available parts that are locally available in case of repair. All these factors give this business an advantage over the competitors.

Essential Steps When Opening the Negotiation

A negotiation process requires proper preparation in advance. The goals and objectives should be defined and the strategies that increase chances of success should be clearly laid down. For a successful negotiation, the following steps should be followed:

Planning the Negotiation

There are a few concerns that should be addressed prior to the negotiation process. The negotiating team should set clear goals and objectives. This should be in terms of the minimum, maximum and average level of the outcome expected. There should be an alternative plan in case the negotiation fails. The negotiating team should lay down the needs of the firm and those of the state. There should be a clearly written agenda with what would be discussed, parties involved, location and time and date. The negotiating team should also do a thorough rehearse of the entire negotiation process (Dawson, 1995).

Engaging With the Government's Negotiators

The negotiating team members need to familiarize with each other with optimum confidence and to establish the agendas. The team should then make their first offer and the state should make its own proposal. The team should note that it's not good to give in to the first offer made by the state. The state's proposa7l should be scrutinized, and all issues clarified bearing in mind the firm's objectives. The firm should have several offers considering the government's stand. However, both parties should be flexible enough so as to reach a consensus. The negotiating team should be keen enough to note any closing signals (Canada, 2000). Once a consensus has been reached, the agreement should be put in writing and then the closing remarks should be made.

Negotiation Gambits to Be Applied

The strategy and the technique to be applied depend on the nature of the client and the competitors. This is determined by the knowledge of the client and the competitors (Dawson, 1995). In this negotiation process, two strategies would be used to ensure the success of the process:

Problem Solving

The firm's team meets with the state's negotiators to institute the terms of the contract. The state's negotiators lay down their terms and conditions and the company puts its case on the table (Lamar et al, 2007). This entails giving evidence why the company has the best deal. It is a thorough process of examining the positive and the negative aspects of the electrical-solar driven convoys and focusing on the long term sustainability of the whole process.


This is primarily use of the best negotiation skills in persuasion. This is not about use of excessive exaggeration giving facts that portray the company on the top when compared with other firms. It is the actual points of making the state's negotiators believe that the firm has the best offer (Lamar et al, 2007). It involves provision of past evidence of other successful projects implemented by the firm. At this point, the points considered include the benefits of the convoy as well as the unique features. The firm also considers the price laid down by the state trying to reach the best price per device. This may not necessarily imply that the firm should compromise the production cost in the name of getting the tender. In short, this method involves extremely competitive and healthy bargains between the firm and the state (Canada, 2000).

Writing Negotiation Contracts

As already stated, a negotiation starts with setting clear goals and objectives. These goals and objectives reflect what the firm expects out of a contract. It is, therefore, wise to accept and sign contracts that reflect the objectives of the business. This would ensure that nothing in the firm is compromised. Any contract that disadvantages the firm will always pose a drawback to the future survival of the firm. It's also crucial to bear in mind that there is always another alternative (Dawson, 1995). Declining one offer may always open the door for another offer with a different company. At the same company members should not be allowed to write the contract due to impartiality. First, they might be tempted to write a contract that favors the needs of the business without having in mind the needs of the other party. They may also give into an unfavorable contract fearing to lose a client.

Facial Expressions during Negotiations

It is always advisable to pay keen attention to the facial expressions of the other party during a negotiation. Facial expressions speak louder than words and can help to determine what the other party feels about the offer. Gestures and different facial expressions reveal the inner thoughts and feelings of a person. Several body languages should be checked keenly such as a client appearing to be disturbed or uncomfortable during a negotiation process. This may represent that he or she is uncomfortable. Physical appearance should also be checked together with physical contact. Eye contact can also tell whether a client is interested in your offer or not. Facial expressions can tell the level of interest and when the client gives in to the proposal. Finally, the posture of the client can describe the level of interest or disinterest (Dawson, 1995).


Negotiations occur in everyday life and the parties involved should always be equipped with proper skills to negotiate. The negotiation approaches employed can greatly influence what one gets. People with excellent negotiation skills always get the best. For good results, a negotiation process should be planned and researched. This helps in knowing the other party as well as having everything in order prior to a negotiation. Any negotiation process should always be in the best interest of the business involved. Finally, negotiating parties should pay keen attention to the body language of the other party.


  1. Canada. (2000). The negotiation process. Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.

  2. Dawson, R. (1995). Roger Dawson's secrets of power negotiating. Hawthorne, NJ: Career Press.

  3. Lamar, C., Monroe, W. C., Spicker, H. H., Fink, A. H., Kentucky Educational Television., & Indiana University, Bloomington. (2007). The negotiation process. Lexington, Ky: KET Network Center.

  4. Nierenberg, G. I., & Oregon State Bar. (2005). Negotiation process. Portland: Oregon State Bar, Committee on Continuing Legal Education./*